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Dr./ Mohamed rizk

Osteopathy






About Osteopathy

is a system of medical practice based on the principle that health depends on the maintenance of proper relationships among the various structures of the body.Osteopathic medicine holds that true health involves complete physical, mental, and social well-being, rather than merely the absence of disease. In this system, the body has a capacity for health that the physician helps the individual attain. The osteopathic physician, therefore, treats the whole patient, considering such factors as nutrition and mental health in addition to physical symptoms of illness.According to osteopathic theory, defects in the musculoskeletal system—the muscles, bones, and joints—influence the natural function of internal organs. To correct structural abnormalities, osteopathic therapy, or manipulative treatment with the hands or related mechanical means, is used. The osteopathic physician uses this treatment when appropriate, either alone or in combination with other accepted therapeutic methods such as drugs, surgery, and radiologic treatments, depending on the medical symptoms of the individual patient.The fundamental principles of osteopathic medicine were formulated in 1874 by American physician Andrew Taylor Still, who established the first osteopathic medical school at Kirksville, Missouri, in 1892. Today more than 24 accredited osteopathic medical schools and more than 200 osteopathic hospitals operate in the United States. More than 38,000 osteopathic physicians treat some 35 million Americans annually. A doctor of osteopathy (D.O.), like a doctor of medicine (M.D.), is fully trained and licensed to practice all branches of medicine and surgery. Osteopathic physicians are licensed in all states and participate in all federally funded health programs. Posted by (Dr.\Hesham Khalil PT, DO (tw)statement 2007



Osteopathy is an approach to healthcare that emphasizes the role of the musculoskeletal system in health and disease. In most countries osteopathy is a form of complementary medicine, emphasizing a holistic approach and the skilled use of a range of manual and physical treatment interventions (Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine, or OMM in the United States) in the prevention and treatment of disease. In practice, this most commonly relates to musculoskeletal problems such as back and neck pain. Many osteopaths see their role as facilitating the body's own recuperative powers by treating musculoskeletal or somatic dysfunction. According to the American Osteopathic Association, the difference between an osteopath and an osteopathic physician is often confused.In the United States, Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.s) are fully licensed medical physicians and surgeons, practicing in all clinical specialties along with their M.D. colleagues . Just like M.D.s, D.O.s practice the full scope of medicine, but with an emphasis on the role of the neuromusculoskeletal system. D.O.s practicing in primary care, pediatrics, family, or internal medicine, are trained to have a more empathetic approach to patient care which has awarded them some level of distinction from M.D.s Outside the United States. The practice rights of U.S.-trained Doctors of Osteopathic medicine varies.


What do osteopaths treat?


Osteopaths treat a variety of common conditions including changes to posture in pregnancy; babies with colic or sleeplessness, repetitive strain injury, postural problems caused by driving or work strain, the pain of arthritis and sports injuries.

Osteopathic principles
These are the eight major principles of osteopathy and are widely accepted throughout the osteopathic community:

1-The body is a unit.
2-Structure and function are reciprocally inter-related.
3-The body possesses
self-regulatory mechanisms.
4-The body has the inherent capacity to defend and repair itself.
5-When the normal adaptability is disrupted, or when environmental changes overcome the body’s capacity for self maintenance,
disease may ensue.
6-The movement of body fluids is essential to the maintenance of health.
7-The
nerves play a crucial part in controlling the fluids of the body.
8-There are somatic components to disease that are not only manifestations of disease, but also are factors that contribute to maintenance of the disease state.
These principles are not held by osteopathic physicians to be
empirical laws, nor contradictions to medical principles; they are thought to be the underpinnings of the osteopathic philosophy on health and disease.

Techniques of Osteopathic Manual Medicine
(
Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine)

In the United States, physical or
manual treatment carried out by D.O.s is referred to as Osteopathic Manual Medicine or Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine (both abbreviated OMM). In other countries, manual treatment by osteopathic physicians is simply referred to as osteopathic treatment.
The goal of
OMM is the resolution of somatic dysfunction to reestablish the self-regulatory mechanisms of the body. There are various techniques applied to the musculoskeletal system as OMM. These are normally employed together with dietary, postural, and occupational advice, as well as counseling to help patients recover from illness and injury, and to minimize pain and disease. Most osteopathic physicians view manual therapies as a complement to physiotherapy, and use more invasive therapies (pharmaceuticals and surgery) where necessary.

Scope of manual therapies
There is now a well-established body of scientific literature that makes a strong case for the use of manual therapies in the treatment of many neuromusculoskeletal pain syndromes, such as
low back pain and tension headache, alongside exercise and other rehabilitative techniques. In recent years, mainstream medicine has begun to accept the use of manual therapies to treat spinal pain of mechanical origin.
More controversial is the use of manual therapies in the treatment of seemingly organic conditions, such as asthma,
middle ear infections in children, menstrual pain, and pulmonary infection. While research is beginning to shed some light in this area, exploration of the relationship between the NMS system and organic disease and the scope of manual therapies are in their infancy. Nevertheless, the sum of research and clinical experience to date suggests that osteopathic treatment can be a safe and cost-effective means of managing (or co-managing) certain diseases.

Cranial osteopathy

It has been suggested that this section be split into a new article entitled Cranial osteopathy.
(
Craniosacral therapy )
Cranial osteopathy, although well-established, is a contested issue within the profession; it is not known what proportion of osteopathic physicians are practitioners. Cranial osteopathic physicians are trained to feel a very subtle, rhythmic shape change that is present throughout the head and body. This is known as the involuntary mechanism or the cranial rhythm.

The movement is said to be very subtle, and it takes practitioners with a very finely developed sense of touch
(palpation) to feel it. This rhythm was first described in the early 1900s by Dr. William G. Sutherland.[6] The theory underlying cranial osteopathy is rejected by many physicians because it was previously understood that cranial bones fuse by the end of adolescence.
However, histological studies have demonstrated the presence of
Sharpey's fibres between the adjacent bones forming the sutural margins, and it is known that these specialized fibers form only at areas where tissue movement is allowed. It is, of course, accepted by most modern osteopathic physicians working within the cranial field, that the spheno-basilar symphysis (a large joint in the skull base) does indeed ossify (turn to bone) and the original principles of cranial osteopathy have thus evolved alongside increasing knowledge.

Cranial osteopathic teaching refers to movement remaining within the thin bone of the sutures, and that flexibility within living bone occurs, in contrast to dried specimen bones. The brain does pulsate, but some research suggests this is related to the cardiovascular system. The same study looked at inter-operator reliability of palpating the 'cranial rhythm' and found there to be little agreement, although modern understandings in the cranial field describe a number of simultaneous rhythms with differing rates, relating to different aspects of function.

How this mechanism is related to health/disease has not been scientifically established. Some osteopathic physicians believe that healing dysfunctional cranial rhythmic impulses enhances cerebral spinal fluid flow to peripheral nerves, thereby enhancing metabolic outflow and nutrition inflow. Many without direct experience of the benefits of treatment dismiss cranial osteopathy as merely theoretical. However, patients of cranial osteopathic physicians have reported emotional releases, lightness and buoyancy, and visualizations.

This technique is increasingly being recognised as especially suitable for newborn babies and young children, with particularly good results in the treatment of colic and crying. It is claimed that as their bones have not fully fused and hardened, they are more susceptible to the treatment.
All in all, this practice appears to be popular with patients with an increasing demand for experienced practitioners.
Craniosacral therapy is based on the same principles but the practitioners have not attended medical school and are therefore not osteopathic medical physicians. Chiropractor & osteopathic physician, M.B. Dejarnette further developed craniopathic techniques inside of a complete Chiropractic system known as Sacro-Occipital Technique or simply "S.O.T."

Visceral osteopathy
Proponents of
visceral osteopathy state that the visceral systems (the internal organs: digestive tract, respiratory system, etc.) rely on the interconnected synchronicity between the motion of all the organs and structures of the body, that at optimal health this harmonious relationship remains stable despite the body's endless varieties of motion. The theory is that both somato-visceral and viscero-somatic connections exist, and manipulation of the somatic system can affect the visceral system (and vice-versa).
Visceral osteopathy is said to relieve imbalances and restrictions in the interconnections between the motion of all the organs and structures of the body--namely, nerves, blood vessels, and fascial compartments. During the 1940s, osteopaths like H.V. Hoover and M.D. Young built on the pioneering work of Andrew Taylor Still to create this method of detailed assessment and highly specific manipulation. The efficacy and basis of this treatment remains controversial even within the osteopathic profession. Visceral manipulation was further promoted within osteopathic treatment by Jean-Pierre Barral in his recent series of books on the subject.

While neither cranial osteopathy nor visceral manipulation are the mainstay of most osteopathic medical practices, there is increasing interest in both of these areas from patients and practitioners alike. Training in cranial osteopathy in the UK has now reached validated
MSc level, which aims to improve standards and contribute to the body of evidence with research-based studies carried out from within the profession.


Is osteopathy regulated?
The General Osteopathic Council (GOsC) is one of 13 organisations in the UK known as
health and social care regulators. Each organisation oversees the health and social care professions by regulating individual professionals.
The Statutory Register of the General Osteopathic Council (GOsC) opened on 9 May 1998. The title "osteopath" became protected by law from 9 May 2000 when the transitional registration period ended. As a result it is a criminal offence, liable to prosecution, to describe oneself as an osteopath in the UK unless registered with the GOsC.
The GOsC regulates, promotes and develops the profession of osteopathy, maintaining a Statutory Register of those entitled to practise osteopathy. Only practitioners meeting the high standards of safety and competency are eligible to join this register. Proof of good health, good character and professional indemnity insurance cover is also a requirement.

What qualifications do osteopaths have?
Osteopaths undertake four to five-year honours degree programmes underpinned by thorough clinical training.

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